Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management

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Table of Contents for Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. List of articles from both the latest and EarlyView issues.
Updated: 22 min 51 sec ago

Comparing options for deriving chemical ecotoxicity hazard values for the EU Environmental Footprint (part II)

9 hours 26 min ago
ABSTRACT

Using REACH ecotoxicity data, this paper compares three different approaches to calculate final substance toxicity hazard values using the USEtox® approach (Chronic EC50 + Acute EC50/2), using only acute EC50 equivalent data, and using only chronic NOEC equivalent data. About 4008, 4853 and 5560 substances hazard values could be calculated for the USEtox® model, acute only and chronic only approaches, respectively. The USEtox® approach provides hazard values similar to the ones based on acute EC50 data only. While there is a large amount of variability in the ratios, the data support acuteEC50eq to Chronic NOECeq ratios (calculated as geometric mean) of 10.64, 10.90 and 4.21 for fish, crustacean and algae respectively. Comparison of the calculated hazard values with the criteria used by the EU chemical classification, labelling and packaging regulation (CLP) shows the USEtox® method underestimates the number of compounds categorized as very toxic to aquatic life and/or having long lasting effects. In contrast, use of the chronic NOEC data shows a good agreement with CLP. It is therefore proposed that chronic NOEC equivalents are used to derive substance hazard values to be used in the EU Environmental Footprint. Due to poor data availability for some chemicals, the uncertainty of the final hazard values is expected to be high.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Using REACH for the EU Environmental Footprint: building a usable ecotoxicity database (part I)

9 hours 33 min ago
Abstract

The EU Environmental Footprint (EU‐EF) is a harmonised method to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations. Amongst 16 different impact categories included in the EU‐EF, one focuses on the impact of substances on freshwater ecosystems and requires the use of toxicity data. This paper evaluates the use of the aquatic toxicity data submitted to the EU REACH regulation. It presents an automated computerized approach for selecting substance ecotoxicity values building on a set of quality and reliability criteria to extract the most relevant data points for calculating the substance specific hazard values. A selected set of criteria led to the exclusion of approximately 82% of the original REACH ecotoxicological data available as of May 2015 due to incomplete initial encoding of the data by the REACH registrant, missing information such as duration of exposure, endpoint measured, species tested, imprecise toxicity values (i.e., reported with greater than or less than signs) etc. From an initial set of 305,068 ecotoxicity data records available in the REACH database, the final usable database contains 54,353 toxicity records (29,421 characterized as acute and 24,941 as chronic) covering nine taxonomic groups; with algae, crustacean and fish representing 93% of the data. This data set is valuable for assessing the environmental toxicity of the substance contained whether through traditional substance risk assessment, product toxicity labelling, life cycle assessment / Environmental Footprint, or environmental impact assessment approaches. However, the resulting loss of approximately 82% of the data suggests that improvements in procedures used to generate, report and document the data within REACH are needed to improve data utility for the various assessment approaches. The rules used to select the data to be used are the primary focus of this article.

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Validation of AIST‐SHANEL Model based on spatiotemporally‐extensive monitoring data of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in Japan: Toward a better strategy on deriving predicted environmental concentrations

Fri, 05/03/2019 - 10:33
Abstract

Strategies for deriving predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) using environmental exposure models have become increasingly important in the environmental risk assessment of chemical substances. However, many strategies are not fully developed owing to uncertainties in the derivation of PECs over spatially extensive areas. Here, we used three‐year environmental monitoring data (river: 11,702 points, lake: 1,867 points, sea: 12 points) on linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in Japan to evaluate the ability of the AIST‐Standardized Hydrology‐based AssessmeNt tool for the chemical Exposure Load (AIST‐SHANEL) model developed to predict chemical concentrations in major Japanese rivers. The results indicate that the estimation ability of the AIST‐SHANEL model conforms more closely to the actual measured values in rivers than it does for lakes and seas (correlation coefficient: 0.46, proportion within the 10× factor range: 82%). In addition, the 95th percentile, 90th percentile, 50th percentile, and mean values of the distributions of the measured values (14, 8.2, 0.88, and 3.4 µg/L) and estimated values (19, 13, 1.4, and 4.2 µg/L) showed high concordance. The results suggest that AIST‐SHANEL may be useful in estimating summary statistics (e.g., 95th and 90th percentiles) of chemical concentrations in major rivers throughout Japan. Given its practical use and high accuracy, these environmental risk assessments are suitable for a wide range of regions and can be conducted using representative estimated values, such as the 95th percentile.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Validation of AIST‐SHANEL Model based on spatiotemporally‐extensive monitoring data of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in Japan: Toward a better strategy on deriving predicted environmental concentrations

Fri, 05/03/2019 - 10:33
Abstract

Strategies for deriving predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) using environmental exposure models have become increasingly important in the environmental risk assessment of chemical substances. However, many strategies are not fully developed owing to uncertainties in the derivation of PECs over spatially extensive areas. Here, we used three‐year environmental monitoring data (river: 11,702 points, lake: 1,867 points, sea: 12 points) on linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in Japan to evaluate the ability of the AIST‐Standardized Hydrology‐based AssessmeNt tool for the chemical Exposure Load (AIST‐SHANEL) model developed to predict chemical concentrations in major Japanese rivers. The results indicate that the estimation ability of the AIST‐SHANEL model conforms more closely to the actual measured values in rivers than it does for lakes and seas (correlation coefficient: 0.46, proportion within the 10× factor range: 82%). In addition, the 95th percentile, 90th percentile, 50th percentile, and mean values of the distributions of the measured values (14, 8.2, 0.88, and 3.4 µg/L) and estimated values (19, 13, 1.4, and 4.2 µg/L) showed high concordance. The results suggest that AIST‐SHANEL may be useful in estimating summary statistics (e.g., 95th and 90th percentiles) of chemical concentrations in major rivers throughout Japan. Given its practical use and high accuracy, these environmental risk assessments are suitable for a wide range of regions and can be conducted using representative estimated values, such as the 95th percentile.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Promising Practices for Alternatives Assessment: Lessons from a Case Study of Copper‐Free Antifouling Coatings

Tue, 04/30/2019 - 09:59
ABSTRACT

Alternatives assessment (AA) is intended to identify safer and more sustainable approaches for managing chemicals used in industrial applications and consumer products and to avoid the adoption of regrettable substitutions. In the US, the state of Washington prescribes a science‐based approach for conducting an AA that meets regulatory requirements. This paper provides an overview of the approach, based on the Interstate Chemicals Clearinghouse (IC2) AA Guide, and illustrates its application to the examination of suitable alternatives to copper‐based antifouling coatings commonly used for recreational boats in the Pacific Northwest. Legislation has been passed in Washington State that will ban the use of certain copper‐based products in both freshwater and marine environments. The AA approach was used to identify and evaluate several alternatives to copper‐based antifouling boat paint products. Five promising practices that AA practitioners should consider when using the IC2 AA Guide in similar assessments of alternatives to industrial practices and consumer products include actively engaging stakeholders, enhancing the decision framework using a selection guide approach, scoping alternatives broadly, optimizing ingredient transparency, and identifying data gaps that could interfere with substitution efforts. The role AA plays in driving consumer product and similar technology innovations and its implications for the future are discussed.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Promising Practices for Alternatives Assessment: Lessons from a Case Study of Copper‐Free Antifouling Coatings

Tue, 04/30/2019 - 09:59
ABSTRACT

Alternatives assessment (AA) is intended to identify safer and more sustainable approaches for managing chemicals used in industrial applications and consumer products and to avoid the adoption of regrettable substitutions. In the US, the state of Washington prescribes a science‐based approach for conducting an AA that meets regulatory requirements. This paper provides an overview of the approach, based on the Interstate Chemicals Clearinghouse (IC2) AA Guide, and illustrates its application to the examination of suitable alternatives to copper‐based antifouling coatings commonly used for recreational boats in the Pacific Northwest. Legislation has been passed in Washington State that will ban the use of certain copper‐based products in both freshwater and marine environments. The AA approach was used to identify and evaluate several alternatives to copper‐based antifouling boat paint products. Five promising practices that AA practitioners should consider when using the IC2 AA Guide in similar assessments of alternatives to industrial practices and consumer products include actively engaging stakeholders, enhancing the decision framework using a selection guide approach, scoping alternatives broadly, optimizing ingredient transparency, and identifying data gaps that could interfere with substitution efforts. The role AA plays in driving consumer product and similar technology innovations and its implications for the future are discussed.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Water reuse as an incentive to promote sustainable agriculture in Lebanon: Stakeholders’ perspectives

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 19:00
ABSTRACT

While technical and economic feasibility of water reuse projects is requisite for implementation, issues in relation to cultural values, public acceptability, and perceptions should not be marginalized. This research focuses on examining the Lebanese stakeholders’ knowledge, perception, and attitude toward the reuse of treated wastewater and on exploring potential enabling factors. Accordingly, in‐depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from concerned ministries, Lebanese Farmers Syndicate, farmers, and religious figures. The reported perceived barriers are categorized into ethical, religious, social, and economical. Various enabling factors that can ameliorate the management of potential perceived barriers are recommended, including enforcing laws, setting new regulations and quality standards, involving the public all through the project process, ensuring regular monitoring and evaluation, and developing financial policies and mechanisms. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;00:000–000. © 2019 SETAC

Multiple approaches to surface water quality assessment provide insight for small streams experiencing oil and natural gas development

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 19:00
ABSTRACT

Historic, current, and future oil and natural gas development can affect water quality in streams flowing through developed areas. We compared small stream drainages in a semiarid landscape with varying amounts of disturbance from oil and natural gas development to examine potential effects of this development on surface water quality. We used physical, chemical, and biological approaches to assess water quality and found several potential avenues of degradation. Surface disturbance likely contributed to elevated suspended sediment concentrations and spill history likely led to elevated stream polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. In combination, these environmental stressors could explain the loss of aquatic macroinvertebrate taxon at sites highly affected by oil and natural gas development. Our results provide insight into advantages and disadvantages of approaches for assessing surface water quality in areas affected by oil and natural gas development. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;00:000–000. © 2019 SETAC

Water reuse as an incentive to promote sustainable agriculture in Lebanon: Stakeholders’ perspectives

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 19:00
ABSTRACT

While technical and economic feasibility of water reuse projects is requisite for implementation, issues in relation to cultural values, public acceptability, and perceptions should not be marginalized. This research focuses on examining the Lebanese stakeholders’ knowledge, perception, and attitude toward the reuse of treated wastewater and on exploring potential enabling factors. Accordingly, in‐depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from concerned ministries, Lebanese Farmers Syndicate, farmers, and religious figures. The reported perceived barriers are categorized into ethical, religious, social, and economical. Various enabling factors that can ameliorate the management of potential perceived barriers are recommended, including enforcing laws, setting new regulations and quality standards, involving the public all through the project process, ensuring regular monitoring and evaluation, and developing financial policies and mechanisms. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;00:000–000. © 2019 SETAC

Learned Discourses: Timely Scientific Opinions

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 19:00
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 482-482, May 2019.

Hazard assessment of chemicals in avian embryos by using "OMICS" approaches: What are the challenges?

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 19:00
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 482-484, May 2019.

Book Reviews

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 19:00
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 485-488, May 2019.

Acknowledging that Science Is Political Is a Prerequisite for Science‐Based Policy

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 19:00
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 310-311, May 2019.

Issue Information

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 19:00
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 307-309, May 2019.

Learned Discourses: Timely Scientific Opinions

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 08:02
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 482-482, May 2019.

Hazard assessment of chemicals in avian embryos by using "OMICS" approaches: What are the challenges?

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 08:02
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 482-484, May 2019.

Book Reviews

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 08:02
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 485-488, May 2019.

Acknowledging that Science Is Political Is a Prerequisite for Science‐Based Policy

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 08:02
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 310-311, May 2019.

Issue Information

Mon, 04/29/2019 - 08:02
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 15, Issue 3, Page 307-309, May 2019.

Review of remediation goals at contaminated sediment sites in the United States

Fri, 04/26/2019 - 17:14
ABSTRACT

Remediation decisions for contaminated sediment sites are typically based on comparisons of in situ sediment concentrations to preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). PRGs are typically developed for protection of human health and the environment, with consideration of site‐specific factors that play an important role in determining the sediment concentrations that are consistent with the human health and environmental protection objectives. Remediation goals are selected from among the PRGs. Sediment remediation goals for four common contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead, and mercury) at contaminated sediment sites throughout the United States were evaluated to determine significant trends and evaluate causes of those trends. Remediation goals were compiled from Records of Decision (RODs) and 5‐year review reports for 77 contaminated sediment sites throughout the continental United States. Remediation goals were developed both as surface‐weighted average concentrations (SWACs) and action levels (i.e., not‐to‐exceed values). One or both may be used to define areas requiring remediation. Remediation goals based on SWACs are typically applied to bioaccumulative chemicals for human health and wildlife receptors, while action levels are typically used for chemicals that result in an acute toxicity to small home range, sediment‐dwelling biota. The findings from this review of remediation goals indicate that SWACs are an increasingly common approach for developing remediation goals, even for small home range, sediment‐dwelling organisms. In addition, the findings from this review of remediation goals indicate that although remediation goals adopted for lead have become more stringent over time, no trend is evident for PCBs, PAHs, and mercury. Remediation goals for PCBs, PAHs, and mercury vary among a variety of factors, such geography, habitat, human or ecological risks, and other local factors.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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